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Erol Basar

Brain Function and Oscillations


Volume II: Integrative Brain Function. Neurophysiology and Cognitive Processes
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999. 2012. xxxix, 476 S. 24 Tabellen. 235 mm
Verlag/Jahr: SPRINGER, BERLIN 2012
ISBN: 3-642-64170-9 (3642641709)
Neue ISBN: 978-3-642-64170-1 (9783642641701)

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Neuroscience is ripe for a paradigm change as Freeman and Mountcastle describe. Brain Oscillations provide an important key to this change. In this book the functional importance of the brain´s multiple oscillations is treated with an integrative scope. According to the author, neurophysiology and cognition demand integrative approaches similar to those of Galilei and Newton in physics and of Darwin in biology. Not only the human brain but also lower brains and ganglia of invertebrates are treated with electrophysical methods. Experiments on sensory registration, perception, movement, and cognitive processes related to attention, learning, and memory are described. A synopsis on brain functions leads to a new neuron assemblies doctrine , extending the concept of Sherrington, and new trends in this field. The book will appeal to scientists and graduate students.
I. Dynamics of Electrical Signals in the Animal Brain.- 1. Dynamics of Potentials in the Visual and Auditory Pathway, Hippocampus, and Reticular Formation of the Cat Brain.- 1.1 Surgery, Experimental Conditions, and Raw EEG.- 1.2 Sensory Pathways in the Cat Brain.- 1.3 Evoked Potentials to Auditory Stimulation in the Cat Brain - Time Domain.- 1.4 Evoked Potentials to Visual Stimulation in the Cat Brain - Time Domain.- 1.5 Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics Obtained with Auditory Stimulation.- 1.5.1 Auditory Cortex.- 1.5.2 Medial Geniculate Nucleus.- 1.5.3 Mesencephalic Reticular Formation.- 1.5.4 Inferior Colliculus.- 1.5.5 Hippocampus.- 1.5.6 Cerebellar Cortex.- 1.6 Amplitude-Frequency Charateristics: Visual Stimulation.- 1.6.1 "Filtered Potentials".- 1.7 Coherence Functions Between All Possible Pairings of Recording Electrodes-Auditory Stimulation.- 1.8 Phase Synchronization Demonstrated by Phase Spectra - Auditory Stimulation.- 1.9 Coherence Functions Between All Possible Pairings of Recording Electrodes-Visual Stimulation.- 1.10 Phase Synchronization Demonstrated by Phase Spectra - Visual Stimulation.- 2. Cross-Modality Experiments on the Cat Brain.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 What Are Multimodal Recognition and Cross-Modality Attention? View of Hartline.- 2.3 The Present Chapter Combines Cross-Modality Experiments, Frequency Analysis, and Wavelet Transform Approaches.- 2.4 Results.- 2.4.1 Averaged EPs (Single Animal, Grand Average).- 2.4.2 Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics.- 2.4.3 Results of Digital Filtering.- 2.4.4 Results of Wavelet Analysis of EPs.- 2.4.5 Statistical Comparison of Results of Wavelet and Frequency Analysis.- 2.5 Single-Trial Analysis of EPs.- 2.5.1 Example of Single-Trial Analysis.- 2.5.2 Wavelet Analysis of Single-Trials.- 2.6 Physiological Implications of Cross-Modality Experiments.- 2.6.1 Hippocampus Is a Supramodal Center.- 2.6.2 Possible Functional Roles of Evoked Alpha Oscillations.- 2.7 EP/ERP Frequency Components - "Real Components" Related to Psychophysiological Functions.- 2.8 Monomodal vs. Bimodal Stimulation.- 3. Selectively Distributed Gamma-Band Responses Studied in Cortex, Reticular Formation, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum.- 3.1 Gamma Responses to Auditory Stimuli Recorded from Various Structures.- 3.2 Gamma Responses to Visual Stimuli Recorded from Various Structures.- 3.3 Gamma Responses - Multiple Functional Correlates.- 4. Highest Frequency Range in Reticular Formation and Inferior Colliculus (100-1000 Hz).- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Selectively Averaged Transient Evoked Potentials.- 4.3 Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics.- 4.4 Consistent Selectivities in the Highest Frequency?.- 4.5 Very High Frequency Responses in the Human Brain.- 5. The Brain of the Sleeping Cat: Dynamics of Electrical Signals.- 5.1 Some Sleep Stages of the Cat.- 5.1.1 Spindle Sleep Stage.- 5.1.2 Slow Wave Sleep Stage.- 5.2 Evoked Potentials During Sleep Stages.- 5.3 Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics During Sleep Stages.- 5.3.1 Spindle Sleep (SS) Stage.- 5.3.2 Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) Stage.- 5.4 Application of Combined Analysis Procedure to the Spontaneous and Evoked Activities.- 5.4.1 Simultaneously Recorded and Filtered.- EEG-EP Epochs (1-45 Hz).- 5.4.2 The Coherence Functions Between All Possible Pairings of Recording Electrodes.- 5.5 Further Comments on the Component Analysis and the Real Responses in Evoked Potentials.- 5.6 Interpretation of Results on Stereodynamics in the Auditory Pathway During the Slow Wave Sleep Stage.- 5.6.1 Synchronization and Coupling of Resonances in the Responses of Various Brain Centers in Alpha and Beta Frequency Ranges.- 5.7 Human Frequency Responses During SWS Sleep.- 6. Dynamics of Potentials from Invertebrate Brains.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Invertebrate (Gastropods) Nervous System.- 6.2.1 The Abdominal Ganglia Complex.- 6.2.2 The Pedal and Buccal Ganglia.- 6.2.3 Microscopic Anatomy.- 6.3 Materials and Methods.- 6.4 Results.