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P. Vidhyasekaran

PAMP Signals in Plant Innate Immunity

Signal Perception and Transduction
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2014. 2016. xvii, 442 S. 52 SW-Abb., 7 Tabellen. 235 mm
ISBN: 9402407553 (9402407553)
Neue ISBN: 978-9402407556 (9789402407556)

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Plant innate immunity is a potential surveillance system of plants and is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The immune system is a sleeping system in unstressed healthy plants and is activated on perception of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP; the pathogen´s signature) of invading pathogens. The PAMP alarm/danger signals are perceived by plant pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The plant immune system uses several second messengers to encode information generated by the PAMPs and deliver the information downstream of PRRs to proteins which decode/interpret signals and initiate defense gene expression. This book describes the most fascinating PAMP-PRR signaling complex and signal transduction systems. It also discusses the highly complex networks of signaling pathways involved in transmission of the signals to induce distinctly different defense-related genes to mount offence against pathogens.
1. Introduction
1.1Classical PAMPs
1.2 Plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)
1.3 Second Messengers in PAMP Signaling
1.4 Plant Hormone Signals in Plant Immune Signaling system
1.5 War between Host Plants and Pathogens and the Winner is .......?
2. PAMP signaling in Plant Innate Immunity
2.1 Classical PAMPs as Alarm Signals
2.2 Effector-like PAMPs
2.3 PAMPs found within Effectors
2.4 Toxins acting as PAMPs
2.5 PAMP-induced HAMPs (DAMPs/ MIMPs/ PAMP Amplifiers/ Endogenous Elicitors)
2.6 Bacterial PAMPs
2.7 Fungal PAMPs
2.8 Oomycete PAMPs
2.9 Viral Elicitors
2.10 Host-associated Molecular patterns (HAMPs) as Endogenous Elicitors
2. 11 Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)
2.12 Transmembrane Proteins interacting with PRRs in PAMP-PRR Signaling Complex
2.13 PAMP triggers increased Transcription of PRR gene and Accumulation of PRR Protein
2.14 PAMPs induce Phosphorylation of PRRs
2.15 Negative Regulation of PRR Signaling
2.16 Translocation of PRRs from Plasma Membrane to Endocytic Compartments
2.18 N-glycosylation of PRRs
2.19 Significance of PRRs in Innate Immunity
2.20 PAMPs-induced Early Signaling Events Downstream of PRRs
2.21 Different PAMPs and HAMPs may induce Similar Early Signaling Systems
2.22 Magnitude and Timing of Expression of early Signaling Systems may vary depending on specific PAMPs
2.23 PAMPs may differ in eliciting various Defense Responses
2.24 Synergism and Antagonism in Induction of Plant Immune Responses by PAMPs/HAMPs
2.25 Amount of PAMP/HAMP determines the Intensity of Expression of Defense Signaling Genes
2.26 Amount of PAMP available in the Infection Court may determine the Level of Induction of Immune Responses
2.27 PAMPs may trigger Different Signaling Systems
2.28 PAMPs may function Differently in Different Plants
2.29 Specificity of PAMPs in triggering Immune Responses in Plants
2.30 Role of PAMPs and Effectors in Activation of Plant Innate Immune Responses
2.31 Effectors may suppress PAMP-triggered Immunity
2.32 PAMP-induced Small RNA-mediated RNA Silencing
3. G-proteins as Molecular Switches in Signal Transduction
3.1 G-proteins switch on Plant Innate Immunity Signaling Systems
3.2 Heterotrimeric G-protein Signaling
3.3 Small G-proteins Signaling
3.4 Heterotrimeric G-protein G may act Upstream of Small G-protein in Immune Signaling
3.5 Different G-protein subunits in Heterotrimeric G-proteins play Distinct Roles in Plant Innate Immunity
3.6 Small G-proteins Activate Plant Innate Immunity
3.7 Small G-proteins may be involved in Susceptible Interactions
3.8 RAR1-SGT1-HSP90-HSP70 Molecular Chaperone Complex: a Core Modulator of Small G-protein-triggered Plant Innate Immunity
3.9 PAMP Signal may convert the G-proteins from their Inactive State to their Active State to trigger Immune Responses
3.10 PAMP-activated G-proteins switch on Calcium ion-mediated Immune Signaling System
3.11 G-proteins may trigger Efflux of Vacuolar Protons into Cytoplasm to activate pH-dependent Signaling Pathway
3.12 G-proteins switch on ROS Signaling System
3.13 G-proteins activate Nitric oxide Signaling System
3.14 Close relationship between G-proteins and MAPKs in Signal Transduction
3.15 G-proteins induce biosynthesis of polyamines which act as second messengers triggering early signaling events
3.16 G- proteins modulate Salicylic acid Signaling Pathway
3.17 G-proteins trigger Ethylene Signaling Pathway
3.18 G-proteins switch on Jasmonate Signaling System
3.19 G-proteins switch on Abscisic acid Signaling System
3.20 G-proteins may participate in Gibberellic acid Signaling
3.21 G-proteins participate in Brassinosteroid Signaling
3.22 Interplay between G-proteins and Auxin Signaling Systems
3.23 G-proteins Activate Defense-related Enzymes
4. Calcium Ion Signaling System: Calcium Signatures and Sensors
4.1 Calcium Signature in Plant Immune Signal Transduction System
4.2 Upstr